Bucharest, 13th-14th December 2017
On the 13th of December 2017 the meeting began with welcoming and introduction words by Adrian NEAGOE –Project manager Cooperation and Programs Department National Administration of Penitentiarie – Romania, who delivered a presentation on Romanian prison service and approach on radicalization (see Annex 2).
Iuliana Carbunaru – from the National Probation Directorate delivered a speech on the Probation system in Romania (see Annex 3). Since 2001 the Probation system became an administrative structure of the Ministry of Justice, separated from the Prison system with which it cooperates.
In 2014 in Romania new laws regulating prison and probation systems were approved together with the new criminal procedure code governing the access to community measures for minors and adults. Such measures for persons released from detention centres, procedural measures of suspension of the sentence and supervision by the probation Office and community service shall be provided for.
The Romanian Probation has a head office and 42 local structures with 380 probation staff, composed by different professionals experts in social sciences, psychology, sociology, pedagogy.
In 2016 the Romanian probation system supervised 50 thousand persons assigned to community measures and has submitted to trial about 30 thousand persons.
Such reform aims at reducing the prison population, strenghtening community measures, adopting new methodological and supervision procedures, increasing at the same time probation staff, improving the organization, informing the community with respect to the social purposes of community sanctions.
Catalina CANA, a psychologist from Jilava prison delivered a presentation on Romanian prison service approach on behavioural change and reintegration programmes (see Annex 4).
Claudiu RAICU, a counter terrorism officer of National Administration of Penitentiaries talked about RAN recommendations on deradicalization (see Annex 5). She pointed out that within RAN eight Working Groups are established. They define intervention guidelines and give support and training to the Member countries.
Mikhail GAZI –KDI, spoke about the Norwergian experience of the mentoring programme (see Annex 6).
Ms Delphine VEREYDE presented Court of Colmar Exit Program.
The French Administration has 10 regional directorates, 188 prisons and 103 probation services. In France radicalization phenomenon was born in the nineties. In 2000 radicalization indicators and assessment risk were created. In 2015 a national strategy developing the intelligence activity, the staff training, the social rehabilitation was carried out. VERA2 risk assessment tool was mentioned. Such tool analyses the dangerousness through some indicators, ideological or religious beliefs, personal behavior and the capacity of the individual to plan and to carry out a violent extremist attack. A mentoring programme is provided for minors and adults sentenced for terrorism offences or identified as radicalized by probation officers.
Jorge Monteiro – DGRSP, presented the Portoguese strategy of changing criminal behavior (see Annex 7). He presented the Directorate General for the reintegration and prison service of Portugal managing 49 detention centres and 6 education centres for minors. The detention structures are divided according to different levels of supervision, with an open regime, according to the needs. There is a team composed of 48 persons, specialized in the management of people in the community. The main purpose of the Portoguese reform is to foster the reintegration of offenders, reduce the recidivism risk and increase social security. The intervention methodology is addressed to identify risk factors and individual needs.
Cristina CAPARESI, from EXIT Onlus presented DERAD experience, based on a tailored programme. She outlines various interventions: a therapeutic relationship with a ‘mentor’ who, urges discussion on religious and ideological motivations leading to violent radicalization; the family support to encourage relationships and religious or ideological counselling. Such very complex approach requests the definition of a programme and of a multidisciplinary staff, specifically trained including also former extremists (see Annex 8).
The Italian delegation delivered a presentation on multiagency and multidisciplinary approach (see Annex 9).
The Italian Probation system was illustrated since the 2015 reform. A summary description of the current system of alternative measures and execution of community sanctions and measures was delivered. Aspects such as multi-professionalism, involvement of local agencies for the execution of treatment programmes aiming at the social inclusion of offenders or accused persons have been analysed.
Delphine VEREYDE illustrated the risk assessment questionnaire (see Annex 10) for the research activity in RASMORAD project with the sets of questions in order for the partners to fill it within the 10th of January.
On the 14th of December 2017 Professor Adrian GORBANESCU, from Bucharest University – Psychology Faculty, delivered a speech on the psychological mechanisms of behavioural change (see Annex 11). He talked about the individual factors motivating radicalization and terrorism (identity crisis, relationship problems, personal characteristics).
Professor Ioan Durnescu from the Sociology Faculty presented a speech on radicalization – what we do so far (www.reentry.eu). He described the ‘Life Cycle of Radicalization’ according to Horgan theory (Becoming, being, leaving) and social factors (push and pull factors), entailing a violent radicalization process (see Annex 12). He explains that it is necessary to re-establish family and social links for the persons leaving the radicalization choice. In this pathway, the support of specialists is essential.
This issue particularly concerns the return to Europe of foreign fighters and their families, men, women and children who are particularly vulnerable coming from conflict zones, requesting a careful risk assessment, treatment, through a multiagency action fostering the reconstruction of relationships and the support to the families.
In the end Youssef SBAI (University of Padua, Italy) spoke about religious factors of EXIT (see Annex 13).
He identifies three socio-political turning points:
The first is the rebirth of the religious thought through the establishment of a group called Jama, an armed Islamic group.
The second step regards the introduction of terrorism by Bill Aden as method of action of his organization called Al-Qaida.
The third aspect refers to the recruitment of young people grown up in Europe starting in 1995 and predominant since the 11th of September.
He underlines that radicalization is carried out in four phases:
- Frustration, research of one’s identity, aggressiveness or ‘hate’;
- Individual interpretation of religion, refusal of mosques and Imam, considered as ‘westernized’.
- Self-indoctrination or indoctrination through third persons; complete isolation and travels to destabilized territories.
- Terrorist status ready to act.
The meeting ends at 12:30.